Abstract 1 the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ouabain digoxinn and beta methyl digoxin medigoxin have been investigated in a crossover study in four normal healthy volunteers 2 pharmacokinetics were studied using 3h labelled glycosides and the shortening of the left ventricular ejection time lvet was used as a measure of the effect of the drugs. 1 introduction heart failure hf is a growing cardiovascular disease affecting 1 2 of the population in developed countries it is a syndrome with high mortality and morbidity and it is often associated to other co morbidities above all in elderly patients that may influence drug pharmacokinetics pks and pharmacodynamics pds used for the treatment of hf . Introduction to pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics pharmacokinetics is currently defined as the study of the time course of drug absorption distribution metabo lism and excretion clinical pharmacokinetics is the application of pharmacokinetic principles to the safe and effective therapeutic management of drugs in an individual patient. Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs and their mechanisms of action on the body or on microorganisms and other parasites within or on the body it considers both drug action which refers to the initial consequence of a drug receptor interaction and drug effect which refers to the subsequent effects
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